When you start learning coding and web development, the number of different programming languages can easily feel daunting and overwhelming. In this post you’ll learn about different programming languages and their uses to help you find the right language to learn.

We’ll go through 14 different programming languages and see what they’re used for. By the time you’re done reading this article, you’ll have a better idea about which language you should learn to achieve your coding goals.

Programming languages explained for beginners - Learn more about the different programming languages and their uses

In short, here’s what we’ll find out in this post:

  • What programming languages are there?
  • What is each programming language good for?
  • Which programming language to learn?
  • What is the best programming language for beginners?

So, even if you’re only just thinking about learning programming, this post is perfect for you. If that’s the case, you should check out my Free Coding Guide for Beginners to start with the very basics, learn more about what coding is, and how the Internet works.

Here are a few helpful articles you may want to read, too:

Alright, let’s get started!




Programming Languages Explained: Table of Contents

Here’s an overview of the different programming languages in this article:

  1. C
  2. C#
  3. C++
  4. CSS
  5. HTML
  6. Java
  7. JavaScript
  8. Objective-C
  9. PHP
  10. Perl
  11. Python
  12. Ruby
  13. SQL
  14. Swift

1. C

The great-grandmother and lingua franca of all programming languages, C was first released in 1972 – that’s a whopping 45 years ago!

During the past decades, it has become one of the most widely used programming languages ever to exist. It’s used for creating a variety of programs for computers, such as operating systems, for instance.

If you’re interested in learning C, let me tell you this: it’s not going to be a walk in the park.

C has a slightly cryptic syntax, so it takes some time to get familiar with. But once you get past that, learning the language is considered rather straightforward.

Also, what’s great about learning C is that when you master it, it’s so much easier to start learning another language.

Because C has been around forever, it’s had a strong influence on some other programming languages, too. You’ll be able to find familiar bits and pieces in C# and C++, Java, JavaScript, PHP, and Python, for instance.

Should I learn C?

C isn’t the most popular or trendy programming language out there. But it’s a solid player in the field with a longer history than most programming languages that are still in use.

Learning C will give you a good overview of the evolution of programming during the past 40+ years. You’ll find plenty of developers who used C even before the Internet came to exist.

One major downside of C is that it’s somewhat difficult to learn for beginners. If you’re looking for the best first programming language to learn, I’d suggest going with a more high-level language like Python. High-level programming languages are easier to “read”. That means you can focus on learning the fundamentals of programming instead of spending too much time understanding how a single programming language works.

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2. C#

Originally developed by Microsoft to run on their .NET framework, C# (pronounced C-sharp) is based on C and C++

C# was originally designed to be easy to learn and use. Obviously that makes it a simple language to start with.

C# a high-level language, meaning that it reads a bit like English. On top of that, it abstracts away a lot of those complex tasks needed to make sure the computer is able to deal with your code – contrary to C++, for instance.

However, it’s still not as high-level as Python, for example – and therefore not quite as easy for a beginner to learn.

Should I learn C#?

C# is the main programming language for developing software and programs for Microsoft. That said, if you’re interested in building applications for the Microsoft platform, C# is the perfect choice for you.

Another popular application for C# is game development. If you want to work in the gaming industry, C# is an excellent choice. It’s the recommended language for building games on the Unity game engine, for example.

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3. C++

C++ is based on C, the indisputable dinosaur of programming languages still in use.

C++ a powerful, high-performance language, but it’s rather lower-level. Low-level programming languages use a lower degree of abstraction, meaning that the code is more difficult to “read”.

Learning a low-level language requires more time spent on understanding how the language itself works. That means you will have less time to dedicate to learning the basics of how computer programming works in general.

Also, if you’re coding an app from scratch with C++, you will need to write a lot of code. That said, projects written in C++ are often more difficult to maintain and manage. If you work with an entire team of developers, things will of course be easier.

On the other hand, C++ is very scalable and efficient. Heaps of resource-intensive programs often use C++, like some of the most beautiful 3D games you’ve seen.

Once you get more confident with C++, you can use it for lots of different projects. C++ is great for coding computer software, mobile apps, game engines and games, or web applications.

Should I Learn C++?

If you’re interested in learning C++, remember that it’s a very complex language to learn. Therefore, make sure you have a well-rounded mentor to support you along the way.

If you’re aiming at taking on big projects where you wish to have a lot of control of how the programs execute, C++ is most likely a good choice. Even more so if you already know C – that’ll be somewhat of a prerequisite for learning C++ anyways.

Once you master C++, learning other programming languages will be much easier.

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4. CSS

CSS or Cascading Style Sheets is the language web designers and web developers use to create the look and design of a website.

Whereas HTML creates the structure and contents for a website, like paragraphs, headings, and images, CSS takes those elements and makes them look pretty.

If you’re interested in building websites, you must learn CSS at some point. Luckily, CSS is easy and quick to learn. It’s also one of the most motivational languages for beginners, because you see the output from your code instantly.

However, even though you can learn the basics of CSS in just a few days, it can take years to master the more advanced tricks with confidence.

Now, one could point out that CSS is just a style sheet language and not a “proper” programming language. But since CSS is one of the cornerstones of web development, it’s got a spot on this list.

Here are a couple of helpful articles you may want to read, too:

Should I Learn CSS?

If you want to build websites in the future, you MUST learn CSS. Together with HTML and JavaScript, CSS forms the third fundamental pillar of front-end skills you must master as a web developer or web designer.

Also, if you want to make money already while you learn coding, the fastest and easiest way to get your first mini jobs is to learn HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

You can start earning money in a matter of weeks with small gigs on freelancing websites like UpWork. At the same time, you can gradually build yourself a nice web developer portfolio to get bigger jobs step-by-step. Once you feel confident enough, you can start applying for your first entry-level front-end developer jobs.

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CSS code


5. HTML

HyperText Markup Language or HTML is used to creating structured content for all websites out there.

Rather a markup language than a programming language, HTML creates the structure and content of a web page. You use HTML to insert text, images, or other media into a web page.

Everything you see on a website gets its fundamental characteristics from the HTML code written by a web developer.

For a kick-start into learning HTML, make sure to

For even more great learning resources, here are the best online courses for learning HTML for beginners. Hand-picked, tested, recommended!

— See also: Getting Started With HTML

Should I Learn HTML?

YES! HTML is super easy to learn, and it’s the foundation of every website and web app you’ve ever used.

You can learn the basics of HTML over the weekend and start building your web development skills step-by-step.

For the best resources for learning HTML, head over to my recommended online courses for learning HTML for beginners.

If you’re like me and you prefer learning from a book, check out my book review on HTML and CSS: Design and Build Websites by Jon Duckett.

Also, when you start learning HTML, be prepared to learn CSS and JavaScript, too. These three languages form the basic building blocks of the Web.

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6. Java

Java is one of the most popular and widely-used programming languages in the world. You can use Java for a variety of different projects, from Android smartphone apps to complete desktop applications.

At the time of writing this article (Nov 2018), Java is in fact holding the first place in the TIOBE Index that ranks programming languages based on how often people search for them on the most common search engines.

Programming Languages Explained for Beginners - TIOBE Index with the most popular programming languages 2018

The fundamentals of Java actually stem from C++, but Java is a bit easier to learn and use, especially for beginners.

For instance, one of the fundamental ideas the developers of Java had was to create a programming language that would allow their code to run on two devices that were nothing alike. That’s where the slogan of Java comes from: write once, run anywhere.

That said, Java is popular across all platforms, operating systems, and devices. This versatility and flexibility also make Java one of the most in-demand and highest paying programming languages you can learn.

Should I learn Java?

If you’re not quite sure yet what it is that you want to accomplish with coding, Java could be a good option thanks to its versatility.

All in all, Java is a great asset to have when you start applying for your first developer jobs.

However, you can also find other programming languages that are more beginner-friendly and require less code to create an entire app from scratch. You could try Python or Ruby, for example.

Java is also the most useful programming language for Android mobile development. If you wish to become a full-time Android developer, check out these top mobile development courses for Android on Udemy.

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7. JavaScript

Not to be confused with Java, JavaScript is the programming language of the Web. It breathes life into websites, making them more interactive, interesting to use, and user-friendly.

These days almost every web page you use daily uses JavaScript. Needless to say, it’s one of the most popular web development languages and among the most powerful programming languages out there – therefore being an excellent skill to possess in the job market.

Read also: What Is JavaScript?

Different frameworks and libraries – such as AngularJS and jQuery or React, respectively – make using JavaScript for front-end development even more efficient and interesting.

JavaScript is a client-side language itself, meaning that the code is executed on the user’s browser. However, with new technologies such as Node.js, it can also be used as a server-side language. This makes JavaScript even more powerful through the additional versatility, ultimately making it a full-stack language.

Read also: Recommended JavaScript and jQuery Courses for Beginners

Should I Learn JavaScript?

If you want to become a front-end web developer, you have to learn JavaScript at some point. You simply can’t build a full-scale website without it. Pair JavaScript with HTML and CSS and you’ve got a complete portfolio of skills to get your first front-end developer job!

Also, JavaScript is one of the “hottest” programming languages at the moment. You will have no problem finding jobs once you master JavaScript. Its popularity just seems to be increasing with new front-end frameworks appearing out of thin air on a regular basis.

If you’re not sure where to start learning, check out these top JavaScript courses on Udemy.

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8. Objective-C

Objecive-C is the primary language by Apple for developing programs for Mac OS X and iOS. First developed in the ’80s, Objective-C has since gained momentum along with the growing popularity of iOS.

Objective-C is a powerful and flexible programming language based on the C language. However, it’s not the easiest programming language to learn for beginners.

Even though Objective-C is the most useful programming language for Apple devices, the general trend in app development for Apple’s devices is going in the direction of Swift. We’ll see what happens with Objective-C in the future, but for now its still a valuable and necessary programming language to learn for iOS development.

Should I Learn Objective-C?

If you want to create apps for the App Store, Objective-C is a necessary skill you need to learn.

When you start learning Objective-C, be prepared to learn Swift, too. The combination of these two programming languages will give you solid skill set for iOS development for a looooong time!

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Working on laptop


9. Perl

Perl is a high-level scripting language that first appeared in 1987 and has since developed into a small family of two separate languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.

What Perl was originally meant for was text processing and manipulation, but it has since found further applications ranging from web development to system administration.

Perl evolved throughout the years into a powerful tool that can be used on pretty much any operating system on the planet. Therefore, it’s sometimes referred to as the “Swiss army knife” of computer languages, too.

Perl takes its best features from other programming languages such as C, for instance. It’s comparable to PHP or Python to a certain extent, too. However, in contrast to Python, Perl usually offers multiple solutions to a single problem. In this way it’s similar to Ruby, where there’s no one single best way to solve a specific problem.

If you’re a beginner programmer, keep in mind that Perl comes with a few somewhat daunting features like any other programming language. For example, it’s famous for the overflowing use of confusing symbols in its syntax. So, the code might look a bit overwhelming for a beginner at first glance.

Should I Learn Perl?

Perl is a powerful and versatile programming language. Once you get the hang of it, it’s not that difficult to learn.

However, if you want to get a developer job in the future, make sure your potential employers actually use Perl. Since it’s not the most popular programming language out there, you could run into problems trying to find a company you’d like to work for as a Perl developer.

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10. PHP

PHP is a scripting language running on the server side to create web pages written in HTML. It’s a relatively easy language to use for new developers, making it one of the most popular programming languages out there. In fact, 80% of the top 10 million websites currently use PHP.

Interestingly enough, PHP was never really intended to become a programming language. It was originally created to be a toolset to help its creator, Rasmus Lerdorf, maintain his Personal Home Page (PHP). That aside, PHP has since become one of the most popular scripting languages on the Web.

Being a server-side language just like Python or Perl are, PHP can do things such as creating login pages, photo galleries, discussion forums, and much more. Websites employing PHP include some lovely treats we all are familiar with, like WordPress, Facebook, and Tumblr.

Read also: Recommended PHP Courses for Beginners

Should I Learn PHP?

Since PHP is easy to get started with, it’s a great choice for a beginner programmer.

Additionally, PHP is the most useful programming language for WordPress development. If you’re planning to become a web developer and want to make money freelancing, PHP is a safe choice: WordPress and other content management systems often use PHP.

If you’re looking for the best beginner-level PHP course to start learning, check out these top PHP Courses on Udemy.

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11. Python

Python is one of the most beginner-friendly programming languages you will find. It’s perfect for learning the fundamentals of programming if you’re just starting out with coding.

Python is easy to learn because it reads almost like English. So, you don’t have to spend that much time understanding how the language itself works, since it’s so intuitive and clean. This means you can dedicate more time to learning what programming is all about and learn the basics of coding in general.

Moreover, Python is also a versatile programming language that you can use for a variety of different coding projects, like

  • Data mining and visualisation
  • Machine learning
  • Web applications
  • Game development etc.

 

Read also: 5 Reasons Why Python Is a Great First Programming Language

Should I Learn Python?

If you want to see results quickly and build meaningful projects from the beginning, Python is a great choice. You will have no problem finding helpful resources for learning Python online.

Also, you don’t have to worry about feeling left alone at any point. The strong and supportive community around Python will take care of their kin. So whenever the road gets rocky, you can rely on receiving help from Q&A sites like StackOverFlow.

I know learning programming can feel a bit overwhelming and it’s difficult to know what you want to do in the future. Python lets you create so many different projects from data mining to game development that you can start learning it and see what you like the most as you progress.

For a kick-start into learning Python, have a look at my post about learning Python with Python Crash Course. It was my very first coding book ever and it taught me everything I needed to know to start pursuing web development as a full-time job.

Read also: Recommended Python Courses for Beginners

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12. Ruby

Ruby is a very high-level, multi-purpose programming language first released in 1995. It’s one of the most fun and creative programming languages to work with, because you will most often find several ways to solve a specific problem.

Learning Ruby will definitely reward you with a steep learning curve and seeing results fairly quickly. For instance, you can build a web application from scratch surprisingly fast using the Ruby on Rails framework.

Therefore, Ruby is the most useful programming language for launching web apps as quickly as possible among startups and small businesses.

Should I Learn Ruby?

If you’re interested in quick progress and creating an entire application from scratch (even just by yourself), Ruby is the most useful programming language to see results quickly. Pair it with the Rails framework and you can build a web app faster than you expected.

Above all, Ruby is popular among small tech companies. So, if that’s the segment you want to work in at some point, Ruby could be a safe choice as your first programming language. To be sure about the demand, just do some research online and find out which programming languages your potential future employers use.

If you’re looking for a beginner-friendly course to learn Ruby and Rails, I’d recommend The Complete Ruby on Rails Developer Course on Udemy. It’s the first Ruby course I took and I just loved it. Highly recommended – the over 50,000 students can’t be wrong!

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13. SQL

SQL or Structured Query Language is the most common language used for managing data stored in relational database management systems (RDBMS).

You can’t imagine how much data companies store in their databases these days. Knowing how to use SQL to manage and analyze the massive amounts of data is a valuable skill in the job market.

Businesses need people who can sift through the databases and help them draw conclusions from them. For example, data analysts at Amazon create demand forecasts before Christmas to prepare and pre-pack millions of items for customers who are likely to order them before the holidays.

In a similar way, airlines sift through their past bookings for forecast demand for flights in the future. That’s how they know how many tickets they can sell at a higher price for each individual flight. Yep, that’s why you’re paying a fortune for flights during holidays.

That said, understanding how data can be used in a sensible way to gain insight into customer behaviour, for instance, is a skill in high demand in the job market these days! Even if you are not aiming at becoming a data analyst yourself, basic SQL skills will be an advantage in terms of being aware of the possibilities data mining offers.

Should I Learn SQL?

If you enjoy analyzing data and using it for drawing valuable conclusions from it, SQL is the most useful programming language to learn. For example, if you enjoy statistics and math in general, data analysis could be something you’ll do a great job at.

Once you master SQL and database management, you can work in pretty much any industry around the world. And more importantly, you will have no trouble finding a job anytime soon!

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14. Swift

Back in 2014, Apple developed their own programming language now known as Swift. Before that, the de facto language for iOS development was Objective-C.

Hence, Swift is aimed at iOS and OS X developers, giving them the perfect tools for creating the next big thing on the app market.

Considering the huge demand in the mobile app market, it’s no surprise that Swift quickly became very popular. It scales nicely and it’s fast. Furthermore, Swift is heavily influenced by Ruby and Python, so it’s very beginner-friendly and easy to use.

However, since it’s somewhat of a freshman compared to other languages, the support community for Swift might be a bit smaller than for the more established languages in the bunch. But like with any other language, it’s just a matter of time.

Should I Learn Swift?

Swift is your weapon of choice if you’re looking to develop native apps for Mac OS or iOS. Since the future of Apple seems quite promising at the moment, Swift can be a good investment if your long-term goals relate to iOS development.

Pairing Swift with Objective-C is probably the best way to go in that case, since understanding Objective-C code will definitely be required from a serious iOS developer.

If you’re looking for the best online course for iOS mobile development, check out these Top iOS Development Courses on Udemy.

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Woman with notebook


Programming Languages Explained: Summing It All Up

If you’re just staring to learn how to code, the number of programming languages can feel daunting and overwhelming.

Just keep in mind that what matters more is that you know why you want to learn programming in the first place. When you know what you want to create with coding in the future, you will learn any programming language much quicker.

To help you get started, I’ve put together a helpful post with 6 easy steps to get started with coding. I’ll see you there!

I hope this post was helpful for learning more about what each programming language is good for. The bottom line is that it doesn’t really matter which programming language you start with. Whether you’re interested in web development or data analysis, all that matters is that you just start, simple as that!

And keep in mind that you will have to learn more than just one programming language anyways. If you’re totally new to coding, I’d recommend starting with an online course that introduces you to several languages and tools. You’ll find the best online web dev courses for beginners in my previous post 5 Web Development Courses to Start Learning How to Code.

So what are you waiting for? It’s your turn now! You might as well start learning right now!

Here are a couple of related posts you may find helpful, too:

If you enjoyed this post on programming languages explained, just drop me a line in the comments below!

P.S. If you found this post helpful, please share it with others so that they can find it, too! Thanks!

That’s all for today, folks! Catch you later!
– Mikke

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